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condensation polymerization mechanism

In condensation polymerization, molecules of monomer and/or lower molecular weight polymers chemically combine, producing longer chains that are much higher in molecular weight. The initiation mechanism is explained by an autoxidation to an active ketohydroperoxide form. The terminal functional groups on a chain remain active, so that groups of shorter chains combine into longer chains in the late stages of polymerization. Condensation polymers form more slowly than addition polymers, often requiring heat, and they are generally lower in molecular weight. Step-growth polymerizations can be divided into two lasses: condensation and addition polymerization. Bakelund performed this synthesis at the beginning of the twentieth century, producing the first synthetic polymer. Polyester and nylon are some of the most common examples of this type. The polymers usually formed by this mechanism have two functional groups, where functionality is defined as the average number of reacting groups per reacting molecule. The byproducts formed may be water or hydrogen chloride. In this article, we are going to discuss condensation type of polymerization. In chemistry of industrial polymers: Industrial polymerization methods. Recent advances in controlled polymerization techniques have offered the possibility to change the growth mechanism to a “living” polymerization in both cases of polymerization. Condensation polymerization, on the other hand, is endothermic—that is, the reaction requires an input of heat from an external source. Condensation Polymerization S Ramakrishnan S Ramakrishnan is a professor in the Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry at the Indian Institute of Science. The kinetic treatment of condensation polymerization focuses on the step‐growth mechanism, with a separate section devoted to cases of living polycondensation. Polyamide and proteins are examples of condensation polymers. 1 In the case of a condensation reaction, two monomers combine with the loss of a small molecule, usually an alcohol, a water or an acid molecule, whereas an addition reaction involves only the rearrangement of the electrons of a double bond to form a single bond with another molecule. The reaction is a condensation polymerisation nH 2 N(CH 2)6NH 2 + nClOC(CH 2) 8 COCl → H 2 N[(CH 2)6NHCO(CH 2) 8]nCOCl + nHCl The nylon formed is nylon 6–10 so called because of the lengths of the carbon chains of the monomers. In addition polymerisation, the monomers must have a C=C double bond. However, in condensation polymerisation, the monomers do not need a C=C double bond … Polymerization is of two types, condensation polymerization and addition polymerization. Condensation Polymerization. The second condensation polymerization you will carry out is a reaction between phenol and formaldehyde to produce a polymer known as Bakelite (see mechanism at the top of the next page). In condensation polymerization, the formation of the polymer occurs when there is a loss of some small molecules as byproducts through the reaction where molecules are joined together. Get more information in the following paragraphs. The diamine is present in excess to react with the hydrogen chloride that is eliminated. In these cases the reactor must supply heat in order to maintain a practical reaction rate. Supply heat in order to maintain a practical reaction rate polymerization techniques have offered the possibility to change growth. Is, the monomers must have a C=C double bond … condensation polymerization and addition polymerization have offered possibility. Is explained by an autoxidation to an active ketohydroperoxide form ketohydroperoxide form molecular. 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